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Barker was motivated to create a truly "American" style of drama to counteract what he saw as "mental colonialism" and the American tendency to feel culturally inferior to Europe.
Although in his preface, Barker cites his primary source of inspiration as John Smith's The Generall Historie of Virginia , he was likely more influenced by a series of popular books by John Davis, including, Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America , Captain Smith and Princess Pocahontas , and The First Settlers of Virginia which featured a more sexualized and romanticized characterization of Pocahontas.
Much of the known background about the piece comes from a letter Barker wrote to William Dunlop, dated June 10, In it, he indicates that he had been working on The Indian Princess for a number of years before it was first produced in In fact in , he wrote a Masque entitled "America" which has not survived that he intended to serve as a conclusion to the play, in which characters called "America," "Science," and "Liberty" sing and engage in political debate.
At the Powhatan River, Smith, Rolfe, Percy, Walter, Larry, Robin, and Alice disembark from a barge as the chorus of soldiers and adventurers sing about the joy of reaching the shore.
Meanwhile, Nima is preparing a bridal gown for Pocahontas in the royal village of Werocomoco , but Pocahontas expresses displeasure about the arrangement her father made for her to marry Miami, a rival Indian prince.
Smith is then attacked by a party of Indians, including Nantaquas, Pocahontas's brother. Due to his fighting prowess, Nantaquas thinks he is a god, but Smith explains he is only a trained warrior from across the sea.
The Indians capture Smith to bring him to their chief. When Walter tells the group about Smith's capture, they depart to go after him.
Before they leave, Rolfe tries to convince Percy to move on after his lover, Geraldine, apparently was unfaithful. When King Powhatan is presented with the captured Smith, he decides, at the urging of the tribe's priest Grimosco, to execute him.
Pocahontas, having been moved by Smith's nobility, says she will not allow Smith to be killed unless she herself dies with him.
This persuades Powhatan to free Smith. Soon, Percy and Rolfe encounter Smith and his Indian allies on the way back to the settlement, and Rolfe is immediately struck by Pocahontas, whose manner suggests the attraction is mutual.
They speak of love, but Rolfe must soon depart with Smith. Pocahontas confesses her love for Rolfe to Miami, who receives the news with anger, jealousy and rage.
Pocahontas convinces her father to dissolve her arranged engagement with Miami, which will mean war between their two tribes. Jamestown has now been built and Walter tells his wife Alice about Powhatan's victory over Miami.
They then discuss a banquet hosted by Powhatan that Smith, Rolfe and Percy will attend. When Grimosco coerces Powhatan into believing he should kill all the White men, by casting doubt about their intentions, creating fear about how they will act in the future, and invoking religious imagery, Pocahontas runs to warn the settlers about the danger.
Back in Jamestown, a comic bit ensues in which Larry's wife Kate has arrived disguised as a male page, and teases him before revealing herself.
She says she has come with Percy's lover, Geraldine, also disguised as a page, who has come to convince Percy he was wrong about her infidelity.
Pocahontas arrives and convinces the settlers to go to Powhatan's palace to rescue their colleagues from Grimosco's plot.
They arrive just in time to prevent the disaster. Grimosco is taken away, and Miami stabs himself in shame. Smith forgives Powhatan, and gives the play's final speech, predicting a great future for the new country that will form in this land.
The surviving published version of the musical score appears in the format of a simplified keyboard transcription using a two-staff system treble and bass.
Therefore, musical elements from the original production such as inner harmonic parts, countermelodies, and accompaniment figurations are no longer known.
Based on records of payments made to musicians at The Chestnut Street Theatre at the time of the premiere, it was likely that the production employed approximately 25 pieces, which may have consisted of pairs of woodwinds flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons and brasses horns and trumpets as well as some timpani and strings.
Typically, however, the entire orchestra was used only for the overture and selected large chorus numbers, while solo numbers were accompanied by strings and one or two pairs of woodwinds.
The brasses and timpani may have been used to invoke a sense of the military in numbers like Walter's "Captain Smith.
Bray who also played the role of Walter. However, other sources suggest it was a benefit for a Mrs. Webster, a tenor who played the role of Larry, was an object of public scorn at the time because of his effeminate manner and dress, and audience members rioted in outrage at his participation, causing Barker himself to order the curtain to be dropped.
There is some discrepancy about the date of the New York premiere, which took place at The Park Theatre , either on June 14, ,  or on January 14, , as a benefit for English actress Mrs.
It was performed again in New York as a benefit for Dunlop on June 23, ,  There was a performance benefiting Bray and an actor named Mr.
The Indian Princess has been cited as the first well-documented case of a play that was originally performed in America being subsequently staged in England.
Cooper, that played The Theatre Royal at Drury Lane in London on December 15, , and subsequently on December 16 and December 19, the piece differed drastically from Barker's original and featured a completely different cast of characters.
Barker himself wrote that the production was done without his permission or even his knowledge, and based on a critical response he read of the London performance, he deduced that there was very little in the play that was his own.
This assertion is based primarily on three factors: the kinder and meeker portrayal of the Natives, which reduces the grandeur of the play's American heroes, the more vague listing of the setting as "North America" rather than specifically "Virginia," and the lack of implications about America's great destiny that was evident in Barker's version.
Structurally, the play resembles a typical English Ballad-opera. Barker borrows heavily from Shakespearean comedy , as can be seen most blatantly in the gender disguises employed by the characters of Kate and Geraldine.
It is of note that Pocahontas switches from prose to verse after falling in love with Rolfe. The Indian Princess is also one of the first American plays to call itself a "melo-drame" or melodrama which literally is French for "play with music.
The play can also be seen as a predecessor to the exaggerated emotionalism of later American drama, and as an early example of how background music would be used in more modern American drama and films.
The Indian Princess is one example of an attempt by an artist of the early 19th Century to define an American national identity. Pocahontas, representing the spirit of America, literally shields Smith from injury and serves as foster mother, protecting colonists from famine and attack, achieving mythic status as a heroic mother, and preserving, nurturing and legitimizing America as a country.
The play allows for an acknowledgement of the troubling aspects of the nation's history of conquest, violence, and greed, by couching the negative implications in a romantic plot.
In other words, the romantic conquest helps to soften the harshness and brutality of the colonial conquest. Barker also had commercial interests, and was motivated by a drive for artistic and financial success.
In this vein, the play was an attempt to please the anglophile public, but create something truly American in setting and theme.
Some write positively about the portrayals, saying that, other than Grimosco and Miami, the natives are noble, though primitive, and have a more "American" value system than the savages traditionally portrayed in British media of the period.
Critics have pointed out several inherent flaws in the script, including the early placement of the play's climax Smith at the chopping block at the beginning of Act II,  loose construction,  song lyrics that trivialize characters,  and a main character in Pocahontas that is somewhat stilted and overly poetic.
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Boat ride is between minutes in length. Boarding time is 15 minutes prior to departure. Boat leaves on schedule. The boat has two levels.
The bottom level is enclosed and has air conditioning. The top level is an open air deck. Both levels have a maximum seating capacity.
Choice of seats is first come first serve. Sometimes the weather can be unaccommodating. Recruited by settlers as interpreters, guides, craftspeople, and instructors some Native women were assimilated or were forced to assimilate into colonial society.
Though it was generally seen as cultural advancement for a Native woman to be accepted into Euro-American society, many of these women were still referred to derogatorily as squaws , despite their elevation of class, and these marriages were usually for the purpose of white families claiming Indian land through forced kinship.
The Native woman's assimilation into colonial society is a key part of many depictions of "Indian princesses" in media. Characteristics of the "Indian Princess" stereotype can be seen in said characters relationship with the white man and specific behaviors or traits that would make her the idealized Indian woman.
The depiction of Native American women in media is important because it may be the only insight the mainstream audience has to the lifestyle of a culture that is generally hidden from the public.
Even if she is actually being taken prisoner or raped. Lajimodiere elaborates on this idea of the Indian Princess being an aid to the white man by claiming that these captive "Princesses" must help non-Indians in their conquest against their own people in order to achieve a likeness to their European counterparts  Her aid to the white man is typically portrayed as being done out of love and 'Christian sympathy' as many "Indian Princesses" are portrayed as Christian converts.
John M. Coward asserts that their relationship is based on a power dynamic that shows the colonizers as heroes to a group of "savages" because the colonists had helped them transition from barbarism to a "refined" society.
Coward claims that Indian women who then follow this standard and show signs of a charming feminine beauty will become the woman that men lust after.
In the book, she is captured by Captain Hook and Mr. Smee and is rescued by Peter Pan. She has a limited command of the English language  and speaks in stereotypical, halting, broken English.
Her most famous depiction is the Disney film adaptation. The depiction of Tiger Lily stands in stark contrast to the female figure of Wendy. Although Peter Pan saves both Wendy and Tiger Lily in the story, Tiger Lily promises to protect him from the threat of pirates in return.
This generated a vast amount of controversy around the whitewashing of Native American representations, with thousands protesting the role.
In an interview with The Telegraph in , Rooney Mara said she regretted her role and said that she could "understand why people were upset and frustrated".
The Disney character Pocahontas , eponymous star of the Disney film is the most famous modern representation of an Indian princess.
She has been inducted to the ranks of the Disney Princess franchise. When they show the promos, certain expressions are really familiar.
During The Boston Tea Party , colonists dressed up as Indians by wearing feathers, blankets, and drawing on their faces with black soot.
They then threw the English's tea off the ship and into the harbor. An Indian princess is often a form of playing Indian. Many non-indigenous people believe that dressing up as an Indian princess is innocent, inoffensive and harmless.
The cultural appropriation of Native traditional dress as a costume is often viewed as offensive because it ignores the cultural and religious significance of traditional Native American regalia, and regularly sexualizes Native American women.
Sarah Winnemucca , a Northern Paiute educator, translator, author, and activist, is a well-known performer who acted as an Indian princess. She played many roles in the late s after she came to the northeastern United States in She had previously spent more than 13 years negotiating with the press on presentations of herself and American Indians in newspaper media.
It is debated on whether she is considered a positive figure for the Indian princess stereotype as her actions are contested by scholars as conforming to Euro-American standards.
The question of her legitimacy is further contested in her costuming. Scholars argue that the inaccuracies within the costuming that Winnemucca models suggest compliance with the non-Native desires of an Indian princess.
Joanna Cohan Scherer, argues that Winnemucca exhibits a "Pocahontas complex" as she dresses in clothing that is not representative of a Paiute woman.
Some critic her actions as a form of complacency in colonialism. Even so, some scholars see her actions as a means of working through the system to achieve societal presence.
Linda Bolton argues that the persona that Winnemucca presents acts as a bridge to help non-natives see Native Americans.
She states that even by wearing the inauthentic clothing, she presents an irony of the Indian identity. Winnemucca even references the issue of costuming in her lectures.
She states that the lack of materials needed to recreate the clothing is understood by the audience because it is a performance. Treat this as you would any other genealogy search, and thoroughly research those ancestors in all available records.
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